Private food Law: Governing food chains through contract law, self-regulation, private standards, audits and certification Schemes

dc.contributor.authorVan Der Meulen, Berndes
dc.description435 p. ; Tabl as, Gráficos,es
dc.descriptionLibro Electrónicoes
dc.description.abstractOver the last decade, worldwide initiatives from the private sector have turned the legal and regulatory environment for food businesses upside down. Litigation is no longer solely framed by legislative requirements, but ever more by private standards such as GlobalGAP, BRC, IFS, SQF and ISO. Private standards incorporate public law requirements, thus embedding them in contractual relations and exporting them beyond the jurisdiction of public legislators. Private standards are used to remedy shortcomings in legislation, to reach higher levels of consumer protection than the ones chosen by the EU legislature, to impose new obligations on contracting parties, to manage risks and liability beyond the traditional limits of food businesses and inally to give substance to corporate social responsibility. Private standards also play a role in deining speciic markets of growing importance and in self-regulating the commercial communication/advertising for foods and beverages. Organic standards have found an interesting symbioses with public law. Halal standards express the demands of some two billion consumers worldwide. Food businesses are inspected more often by private auditors than by public inspectors. Effects in terms of receiving or being denied certiication often far outweigh public law sanctions. In short, based on private law, an entire legal infrastructure for the food sector emerges, in parallel to, and sometimes complementing, the public law regulatory
dc.description.abstractDurante la última década, las iniciativas a nivel mundial en el sector privado se han convertido el entorno jurídico y reglamentario para las empresas de alimentos al revés. Litigio ya no es el único enmarcado por los requisitos legales, pero cada vez más por las normas privadas como GlobalGAP, BRC, IFS, SQF y la ISO. Las normas privadas incorporar los requisitos de derecho público, lo que les inserción en las relaciones contractuales y su exportación fuera de la jurisdicción de los legisladores públicos. Las normas privadas se utilizan para corregir las deficiencias en la legislación, para alcanzar mayores niveles de protección al consumidor que los elegidos por el poder legislativo de la UE, a imponer nuevas obligaciones a las partes contratantes, para gestionar los riesgos y responsabilidades más allá de los límites tradicionales de las empresas alimentarias y inalmente dar a sustancia a la responsabilidad social corporativa. Las normas privadas también juegan un papel importante en los mercados Deining speciic de creciente importancia y en la auto-regulación de la comunicación comercial / publicidad de alimentos y bebidas. Los estándares orgánicos han encontrado una simbiosis interesante con el derecho público. Las normas Halal expresar las demandas de unos dos mil millones de consumidores en todo el mundo. Las empresas alimentarias son inspeccionados con mayor frecuencia por los auditores privados que por los inspectores públicos. Efectos en términos de recibir o ser certiication les negaba a menudo son muy superiores a las sanciones de derecho público. En resumen, basado en el derecho privado, toda una infraestructura legal para el sector de la alimentación surge, de forma paralela a, y algunas veces complementar, la infraestructura de ley de regulación pú
dc.description.tableofcontentsAbout the authors 15 Foreword 21 Abbreviations 23 1. Private food law 29 The emergence of a concept Bernd van der Meulen 1.1 The irst book on private food law 29 1.2 Private food law 30 1.3 Cover 32 1.4 Food law 32 1.5 Classiications in private food law 37 1.6 Topics covered in this book 38 1.7 Law and governance 48 1.8 Last but not least 49 Acknowledgements 49 References 50 2. Quasi-states? The unexpected rise of private food law 51 Lawrence Busch 2.1 Introduction 51 2.2 Building neoliberalism 51 2.3 Transformation of the global economy 55 2.4 Rise of the Tripartite Standards Regime (TSR) 59 2.5 Can governance be plural? Legitimacy and markets revisited 62 2.6 Conclusions 68 Acknowledgements 70 References 70 3. The anatomy of private food law 75 Bernd van der Meulen 3.1 Introduction 75 3.2 The history of private standards 77 3.3 Chain orchestration 78 3.4 Owning a standard 78 3.5 Enforcement 79 3.6 Adjudication 79 8 Private food law Table of contents 3.7 Audits 79 3.8 Certiication mark 80 3.9 Accreditation 80 3.10 Beyond accreditation 82 3.11 Standard setting 83 3.12 Structure of private food law 83 3.13 Interconnected private schemes 84 3.14 Public – private interconnections 85 3.15 Motives 88 3.16 Examples 89 3.17 Underlying concepts 92 3.18 EurepGAP/GlobalGAP 93 3.19 BRC 97 3.20 IFS 98 3.21 SQF 99 3.22 FS22000 102 3.23 GFSI 103 3.24 Public law on private food law 105 3.25 WTO 106 3.26 Conclusions 108 References 109 4. Inventory of private food law 113 Theo Appelhof and Ronald van den Heuvel 4.1 Introduction 113 4.2 Controlling food safety by quality management system/standard 119 4.3 Description of commonly used Standards 124 4.4 To conclude 147 References 147 5. Codex Alimentarius and private standards 149 Spencer Henson and John Humphrey 5.1 Background 149 5.2 Nature of private food safety standards 151 5.3 Trends in the development and functions of private food safety standards 157 5.4 Role of Codex in the context of private standards 162 5.5 Do private standards jeopardise the work of Codex? 165 5.6 Challenges and opportunities for Codex 168 5.7 Conclusions 170 References 171 Private food law 9 Table of contents 6. Private retail standards and the law of the World Trade Organisation 175 Marinus Huige 6.1 Introduction 175 6.2 What are private standards? 176 6.3 Private standards, what drives them? 177 6.4 Private standards and the WTO SPS Committee 178 6.5 The current discussion on applicability of the SPS Agreement 181 6.6 Food for thought 184 References 185 7. Private law making at the round table on sustainable palm oil 187 Otto Hospes 7.1 Introduction 187 7.2 The normative content of the RSPO 189 7.3 Principle(d) actors 192 7.4 Compliance and complaints 195 7.5 How voluntary are the RSPO principles and criteria? 196 7.6 Governments as consultative cheerleaders or competitive law makers 198 7.7 Conclusion 199 References 201 8. GlobalGAP smallholder group certiication 203 Challenge and opportunity for smallholder inclusion into global value chains Margret Will 8.1 Challenge or opportunity? An introduction to GlobalGAP option 2 smallholder certiication 203 8.2 Challenge and opportunity! The GlobalGAP smallholder pilot project 208 8.3 Turning challenges into opportunities: conclusions from the GlobalGAP smallholder pilot project 213 8.4 GlobalGAP: challenge and opportunity! Conclusions and recommendations 221 References 226 9. Towards the self-regulation code on beer advertising in Italy 229 Steps on the long lasting path of competition/co-operation of public and private food law Ferdinando Albisinni 9.1 The peculiar relation between innovation and food law 229 9.2 Private regulatory law 230 9.3 The IAP – Institute of self-regulation in Marketing Communication (1963) 231 9.4 Legislative reforms in the 1990’s: cooperative competition between public and private law 233 9.5 The Beer Advertising Code: private regulation as tool to expand and anticipate consumer protection 236 9.6 Some open questions 238 References 239 10. Self-regulation code on beer advertising 241 Alessandro Artom 10.1 Introduction 241 10.2 Underlying principles 242 10.3 The Code 246 10.4 The Code as Private Food Law 253 References 254 11. Franchising strengthens the use of private food standards 255 Esther Brons-Stikkelbroeck 11.1 Introduction 255 11.2 Private food standards 255 11.3 Vertical agreements and franchising 257 11.4 Conclusion 264 References 264 12. On the borderline between state law and religious law 265 Regulatory arrangements connected to kosher and halal foods in the Netherlands and the United States Tetty Havinga 12.1 The developing supply of halal foods 265 12.2 Regulating halal and kosher food 266 12.3 Kosher certiication in the Netherlands 269 12.4 Halal certiication in the Netherlands 270 Private food law 11 Table of contents 12.5 Religious slaughter in the Netherlands 271 12.6 Regulation of kosher food in the United States 273 12.7 Religious slaughter in the United States 276 12.8 Comparative conclusions 277 12.9 Explaining the different position of the government 282 References 285 13. Organic food 289 A private concept’s take-over by government and the continued leading role of the private sector Hanspeter Schmidt 13.1 Introduction 289 13.2 ‘Bio’ and ‘Eco’ and ‘Regular’? 289 13.3 Comprehensive protection of organic terminology 290 13.4 The friendly take-over by government in the 1990s 290 13.5 Contaminants 291 13.6 2011: still the same concept 291 13.7 Positive lists for farming and processing 292 13.8 The friendliness of the take-over 293 13.9 Take-over of norms, but not of controls 293 13.10 Toxins from non-regulated sources 295 13.11 BNN orientation values 295 13.12 Pesticide traces as misleading labelling 297 13.13 The statutory role of doubt 298 13.14 Conclusion on the role of private organic food regulation 298 References 299 14. Food online 301 Reconnaissance into a consumer protection no-man’s land between food law and the Civil Code Lomme van der Veer 14.1 Introduction 301 14.2 The distance contract, buying food online 302 14.3 Information and expectations about the product 308 14.4 Conformity 309 14.5 Conformity requirement and distance contracts 313 14.6 Conclusions 317 References 318 12 Private food law Table of contents 15. National public sector and private standards 319 Cases in the Netherlands Irene Scholten-Verheijen 15.1 Public law and private standards 319 15.2 Public procurement and private standards 323 15.3 Public enforcement and private standards 326 15.4 Conclusions 328 Postscript 328 References 329 16. The outside of private food law 331 The case of braided private regulation in Dutch dairy viewed in the light of competition law Maria Litjens, Bernd van der Meulen and Harry Bremmers 16.1 Introduction 331 16.2 Background 332 16.3 Private regulation structured in the food chain 336 16.4 The big picture 342 16.5 Developments in competition law 345 16.6 Conclusions and discussion 349 Acknowledgements 351 References 351 17. The limit of private food law 353 Competition law in the food sector Fabian Stancke 17.1 Introduction 353 17.2 The requirements of competition law compliance 354 17.3 Addressees of competition law in the food sector 354 17.4 The restrictions on anticompetitive conduct 355 17.5 The restrictions on non-collusive / unilateral conduct by market dominant companies 357 17.6 Groups of cases relevant under competition law in the food sector 358 17.7 Concluding remarks 376 References 377 18. EU ‘new approach’ also for food law? 381 Nicole Coutrelis 18.1 What is the ‘new approach’ 381 18.2 Is the ‘new approach’ unknown in EU Food Law? 383 Private food law 13 Table of contents 18.3 Public/private – regulation/standards: present situation and questions 384 18.4 Is the ‘new approach’ now possible/desirable in EU Food Law? 386 References 388 Appendix 1. Commission Communication – EU best practice guidelines for voluntary certiication schemes for agricultural products and foodstuffs 391 Appendix 2. Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament and the European Economic and Social Committee 401 Keyword index 423es
dc.publisherThe Netherlands : Wageningen Academic Publishers,
dc.rightsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial NoDerivs 3.0es
dc.subjectComida orgánicaes
dc.subjectAuto regulaciónes
dc.subjectTechnology & Engineering - Agriculture - Generales
dc.subjectScience -- Generales
dc.subjectTechnology & Engineering - Food Sciencees
dc.subjectOrganic foodes
dc.titlePrivate food Law: Governing food chains through contract law, self-regulation, private standards, audits and certification Schemeses
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